The Habitat Agenda is the main political document that came out of the Habitat II conference in Istanbul, Turkey 3 to 14 June 1996. Adopted by 171 countries, at what was called the City Summit it contains over 100 commitments and 600 recommendations on human settlements issues. The agenda has numerous reference to women and gender referring to areas that need to be addressed in order to empower women. They include women’s right to land, housing and property.

The Beijing Platform for Action, adopted by governments at the Fourth World Conference on Women, 15 September 1995 is an agenda for women's empowerment. The Platform aims at accelerating the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women and focuses on 12 critical areas which are identified as obstacles to the advancement of women in the world.   

The 2010 International Property Rights Index (IPRI) is an international comparative study that measures the significance of both physical and intellectual property rights and their protection for economic well-being. In order to incorporate and grasp the important aspects related to property rights protection, the Index focuses on three areas: Legal and Political Environment (LP), Physical Property Rights (PPR), and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). The current study analyzes data for 125 countries around the globe, representing ninety-seven percent of world GDP.

This report deals with the management of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period with regards to female genital mutilation. 

This is a compilation of resource materials on FGM in various languages, as well as list of organisations/campaigns and various projects on FGM.

This book documents, primarily, the medical and health facts about FGM. It also considers legislations, human rights declarations and other actors relevant to efforts to combat the practice. 

تتعامل الأحكام الإسلامية الشرعية مع أي علاقة جنسية من أي نوع خارج مؤسسة الزواج الشرعية باعتبارها جريمة تقع تحت طائلة حكم الزنا، والذي يُعرف بدوره على أنه أي ممارسة جنسية صريحة بين الرجل والمرأة. ولا تختلف عقوبة الزنا للرجل عن المرأة وهي: الجلد مائة جلدة لغير المتزوجين والرجم حتى الموت للمتزوجين - على الرغم من أن التاريخ نادراً ما يذكر أمثلة لمثل هذه العقوبات.

This is a collection of scholarly treatises on Islamic perspectives of the differences between male and female circumcision. It differentiates the two practices and shows the health effects of FGM compared to male circumcision.

This publication discusses the experience of childbirth and the difficulties faced by women and children. It also gives statistics on trends in maternal mortality rates and the issue of birth control and spacing. 

This paper is on various perspectives of FGM, the reasons for and types of FGM, and the health consequences of the practice.


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