Women and Conflict in Indonesia
§ Political background. E.g: The conflict in Papua is related to the differences of opinion on the legitimacy of the Papua integration to Indonesia in 1969 which resulted in armed confrontation between the central government and Papuan leaders under the Free Papua Organization (OPM), since more than 40 years ago until today.
§ The massive poverty and economic injustice. E.g: agrarian conflict in througout Indonesia, human rights violation in Papua in the context of economic injustice by PT. Freeport
More over, the socialization and the meaningful participation/engagement of civil society in the development of NAP is also remains as challenge. As addition, there is a new challenges where State have repressive laws which criminalized the activity of community organization, such as the Law on State Intelligence, the Law on Community Organization, and the Law on Handling Social Conflict. According to the Law on Community Organization for example, the government could impose sanctions and can even dissolve community organizations (including Foundation and Associations) through judicial mechanisms. The Law on Handling Social Conflict is also bias in defining conflict so it potentially violate human rights.