SP is an organization concerned with women’s rights and empowerment (in the Muslim contexts). It carries out research on the impact of fundamentalist movements on national and local policies, Syariah laws and regulations that discriminate against women, and the impact of these on women lives. SP disseminates information to the wider community, especially in the South Sulawesi region, about the situation of women living under the regional Syariah regulations. They publish research findings and organise discussions.
LBH-21 (founded 1995) is based in South Sulawesi and was led by local activist and lawyer Christina Joseph untill she passed in 2003. It established the first women’s crisit centre in South Sulawesi, which handles cases such as domestic violence, rape, and state-sponsored violence. Known in Indonesia as KDRT (kekerasan dalam rumah tangga, or ‘violence in the household’), LBH-P21 provides women with legal assistance when cases are filed with the police, because women are notoriously ‘unseen’ in regards to the law.
Contact information can be obtained from Solidaritas Perumpuan.
Komnas Perempuan is an independent institution that was established in 1998 through a decree by former President Habibie. The KP deals with basic human rights of women in Indonesia, notably all sorts of violence against women, in conflict as well as peace situations. Together with social organisations, the KP develops concepts, standards, instruments and mechanisms intended to prevent, handle, and abolish all forms of violence against women. The Commission has initiated advocacy activities and has been involved in several processes of human rights investigations.
Koalisi NGO HAM is a network of NGOs that are active in the area of human rights advocacy. Their vision is to create a civil society to appreciates humanitarian values, social justice, gender equality and democracy.
FPMP was founded in Makassar (South Sulawesi) in 1995. It works to gather together women of different background to strengthen capacity to eliminate violence against women. As well as monitoring and advocating against violence directed at women, it campaigns on issues such as women’s political rights. It also offers assistance, through its women’s crisis centre, to women victims of violence.
Numerous titling and registration programs have been implemented in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe as a necessary measure to ensure the property rights of smallholders and increase their access to other production factors, particularly credit. A major criticism of titling programs and formal property rights institutions (such as property registries), however, is their tendency to grant title for household landed property to just one person in the household, usually the male head of household.
This paper explores statistically the implications of the shift from communal to individualized tenure on the distribution of land and schooling between sons and daughters in matrilineal societies, based on a Sumatra case study. The inheritance system is evolving from a strictly matrilineal system to a more egalitarian system in which sons and daughters inherit the type of land that is more intensive in their own work effort. While gender bias is either non-existent or small in land inheritance, daughters tend to be disadvantaged with respect to schooling.
The authors test the unitary versus collective model of the household using specially designed data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and South Africa. Human capital and individual assets at the time of marriage are used as proxy measures for bargaining power. In all four countries, we reject the unitary model as a description of household behaviour, but fail to reject the hypothesis that households are Pareto-efficient. In Bangladesh and South Africa, women's assets increase expenditure shares on education, while in Ethiopia it is men's assets that have this effect.
This paper was presented at the International Conference on Land and Resource Tenure, Jakarta, 11-13 October 2004. The writer was part of a panel of women speaking on the theme of women and tenurial rights. For further information see www.landtenure.net, and link below.