International

تتعامل الأحكام الإسلامية الشرعية مع أي علاقة جنسية من أي نوع خارج مؤسسة الزواج الشرعية باعتبارها جريمة تقع تحت طائلة حكم الزنا، والذي يُعرف بدوره على أنه أي ممارسة جنسية صريحة بين الرجل والمرأة. ولا تختلف عقوبة الزنا للرجل عن المرأة وهي: الجلد مائة جلدة لغير المتزوجين والرجم حتى الموت للمتزوجين - على الرغم من أن التاريخ نادراً ما يذكر أمثلة لمثل هذه العقوبات.

This is a collection of scholarly treatises on Islamic perspectives of the differences between male and female circumcision. It differentiates the two practices and shows the health effects of FGM compared to male circumcision.

This publication discusses the experience of childbirth and the difficulties faced by women and children. It also gives statistics on trends in maternal mortality rates and the issue of birth control and spacing. 

This paper is on various perspectives of FGM, the reasons for and types of FGM, and the health consequences of the practice.

 

This material is a compilation of issues regarding the effects of FGM on newborns, children, adolescents and young adults. It also shows the prevalence in various countries in Africa, and looks at the reasons why there is support for FGM in Egypt, Mali, Central African Republic and Eritrea.

This book opens with a description of female circumcision/female genital mutilation, its history and its health consequences. The authors look at the reasons used to justify controlling women's sexuality, tradition, interpretation of religious dictates and present a history of the movement working to combat it.

This material gives an insight into heath related issue of Somali refugee women, and concerns faced particularly regarding Female Genital Mutilation.

This article responds to female genital mutilation with a look at human rights standards and a national education program on FGM (1996-2000). 

This book focuses on the worldwide abuse of the female body, whether culturally sanctioned, aesthetically inspired, or politically motivated. There is also special attention paid to African women, colonial discourse and imperialist intervention in the name of addressing FGM in Africa. 

An information material on the types of FGM practised in Ethiopia, its prevalence and severe forms found among both Ethiopian and Somali societies.

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