Burkina Faso: Cutters turn razors on babies to evade FGM/C law
Babies’ screams are often hidden from unsuspecting neighbours during noisy cutting ceremonies, according to the government’s National Committee Against FGM/C, known as CNLPE. FGM/C is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as any injury to female genital organs for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons.
WHO has stated that consequences can include lifelong debilitating psychological and physical trauma – such as extreme pain during childbirth, sexual relations and urination. Some three million girls, the majority under 15 years old, are cut every year. “It is a perverse effect of our denunciation and awareness campaign that to avoid being caught they [circumcisers] turn to babies who can undergo FGM/C unnoticed,” said CNLPE’s permanent secretary Marie Rose Sawadogo.
The fact that people have “developed strategies to violate the  law” means some communities still do not understand why they need to abandon FGM/C, said Brigitte Yameogo with the non-profit Mwangaza Action. (Mwangaza means “light” in Swahili.) In a 2008 survey the NGO conducted in the capital Ouagadougou, a majority of the 140 residents surveyed reported returning to their villages or finding remote areas to have their babies cut.
Pascaline Sebgo, an adviser in charge of FGM/C control for the German aid agency GTZ, told IRIN newborn victims are even more vulnerable at the hands of aging cutters. “Most of the circumcisers are old, cannot see well and just cut what they feel in their hands,” Sebgo told IRIN. She added that the average age of cutters has not changed much since a 1996 government survey reported 58 as the average age, with some cutters working into their 80s.
The new fight
Prevalence of FGM/C in Burkina Faso had dropped from 77 percent in the 1990s to less than 50 percent among women 15 to 49 years old in 2005, according to CNLPE. But some leaders are still resisting pressure to wipe out FGM/C, said Mwangaza Action’s Yameogo. “FGM/C is still a reality in Burkina Faso and populations strongly believe that the practice is rooted in their traditional values,” she told IRIN. “Though some traditional chiefs publicly denounce FGM/C, they still favour the practice in private.”
Yameogo said anti-FGM/C messages can get lost in nationwide “massive campaigns” and that FGM/C supporters may better “understand the heart of the [cutting] problem” if they are approached in smaller settings.
The government’s Sawadogo told IRIN the increase in newborn FGM/C victims [since adoption of 1996 law] does not cancel out previous gains made in the fight against FGM/C, but that new strategies are needed to stop those who “thwart the law” by cutting younger and younger girls. But she said that since 2004 the government has not had funds to run anti-FGM/C campaigns.
GTZ's technical adviser Sebgo said CNLPE has lacked “clear objectives” and is working from an outdated action plan. Sebgo said GTZ will work with partners to increase funding as soon as the government adopts a new anti-FGM/C action plan, which is being finalised.
27 January 2009
- Violence against Women in the context of Political Transformations and Economic Crisis in the Euro-Mediterranean Region:
- Too Young to Wed
- Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Manjoo*
- Disposable Victims: Laws and Practices on Gender-related Killings of Women and Girls in the Islamic Republic of Iran