UN: Statement by experts on World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue & Development
Human rights are essential tools for an effective intercultural dialogue: On this World Day for Cultural Diversity, let us celebrate the richness of our common humanity embodied in cultural diversity which is as essential for humankind as bio-diversity is for nature and recognise the imperative of defending this diversity which cannot be dissociated from respect for the dignity of the individual and complete commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Manifest in the manifold ways individuals, groups and societies express themselves, cultural diversity lies at the heart of contemporary debates about identity and social cohesion. Globalization processes, facilitated by the rapid development of new information and communication technologies, are often perceived to be eroding cultural diversity, making the preservation of diversity all the more important. Development, as a process ensuring a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence for all, requires that intercultural dialogue and harmonious interaction be promoted among individuals and groups with plural, varied and dynamic cultural identities as the best guarantee of peace and stability.
Cultural diversity, however, can only thrive in an environment that safeguards fundamental freedoms and human rights, which are universal, indivisible, interconnected and interdependent. No one may invoke cultural diversity as an excuse to infringe on human rights guaranteed by international law or limit their scope, nor should cultural diversity be taken to support segregation and harmful traditional practices which, in the name of culture, seek to sanctify differences that run counter to the universality, indivisibility and interdependence of human rights.
Cultural rights include the right to question the existing parametres of ‘culture’, to opt in or out of particular cultural entities, and to continuously create new culture. Individuals have multiple plural identities and inhabit societies which are also pluralistic. Promoting cultural diversity is thus the preservation of a living process, a renewable treasure for the benefit of present and future generations that guarantees everyone’s human rights as an adaptive process nurturing the capacity for expression, creation and innovation.
On the occasion of the World Day for Cultural Diversity, noting that universal values of human rights should serve as a bridge among all cultures and should not be subservient to social, cultural or religious norms, we remind States of their responsibility under international law to create an environment conducive to cultural diversity and the enjoyment of cultural rights in which all persons, including national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities and those based on other attributes, as well as indigenous peoples, have the right: to express themselves and to create and disseminate their work in the language of their choice, and particularly in their mother tongue; receive quality education and training that fully respect their cultural identity; and have the right to participate in the cultural life of their choice and conduct their own cultural practices, subject to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Human rights and cultural diversity are intertwined: Full respect for human rights creates an enabling environment for, and is, a guarantee of cultural diversity. Cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms, such as the freedom of expression, information and communication, the freedom from discrimination of any kind, as well as the ability of individuals to choose cultural expressions, and their right to participate or not to participate in the cultural life of given communities are guaranteed. At the same time, an environment conductive to cultural diversity will contribute in a significant manner to the full respect of human rights.
Respect for human rights fosters cultural diversity by giving individuals and groups the possibility to freely express and develop their cultural identity; to access cultural and religious heritage and information from their own community and that of others, as well as the benefits of scientific progress; and to participate in the interpretation, elaboration and development of cultural heritage and in the reformulation of the contents and contours of their cultural identity. Recognition of the diversity of cultural identities and expressions, equal treatment and respect for the dignity of all persons and communities, and openness to others, discussion and intercultural exchanges are crucial elements in the promotion of cultural diversity.
Importantly, cultural diversity does not exist only between groups and societies; there is diversity within each group and society. Intercultural and interreligious dialogue needs to take place at all levels, i.e. from the community to the international levels. Within communities, intercultural exchanges should involve families, intellectuals and community leaders. Youth especially should be encouraged to engage in intercultural dialogue through, for example, penfriend programmes in schools or via Internet chats on specific topics and artistic events.
At the national level, the rule of law and the functioning of democratic institutions are prerequisites for establishing a favourable climate conducive to real dialogue and understanding. People need to have trust in the system, and diversity within institutions can contribute to creating such an environment. Diversity needs therefore to be mainstreamed, for example, in nominations to statutory bodies, housing projects and school curricula.
States should adopt measures conducive to the creation and preservation of open spaces that are necessary for the exercise of cultural freedoms and for enabling individuals and groups to address and manage cultural changes in a participatory way and to safeguard, develop and transmit their cultural heritage. In this regard, educational institutions play a vital role since they can either inculcate a spirit of tolerance or promote tensions, even at an early age. Therefore, emphasis must be placed on enlightened education that teaches children to recognize and to appreciate the diversity that exists.
Farida Shaheed, Independent Expert in the field of cultural rights, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/cultural_rights/index.htm
Frank La Rue, Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/opinion/index.htm
Githu Muigai, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/racism/rapporteur/index.htm
James Anaya, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/indigenous/rapporteur/
Rashida Manjoo, Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/women/rapporteur/index.htm
Vernor Muñoz Villalobos, Special Rapporteur on the right to education, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/education/rapporteur/index.htm
Asma Jahangir, Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/religion/index.htm
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