Integration of the human rights of women and a gender perspective: Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Its Causes and Consequences: Mission to the Islamic Republic of Iran.
This report contains the findings of the mission of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, to the Islamic Republic of Iran, which took place from 29 January to 6 February 2005. It starts with a review of the recent history of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the governance structure, human rights obligations of the State and the status of women, then continues with an examination of the incidents of violence against women (namely domestic violence, ‘honour crimes’, human trafficking, and stoning) and the impact of discriminatory laws and judiciary procedures in hindering women’s access to justice. The report notes that violence against women in the Islamic Republic of Iran is ingrained in gender inequality, which is upheld and perpetuated by two interrelated factors: (a) patriarchal values and attitudes based on male supremacy, and (b) State-promoted institutional structures based on gender-biased, hard-line interpretations of religious principles. While the former is a universal and historically rooted phenomenon, the latter is specific to the gender politics in the contemporary Islamic Republic of Iran. Both factors represent male-empowering values, laws and practices, making it difficult for women to escape public and private violence.The report concludes with a reflection on the prospects for a comprehensive judicial reform and identification of key measures and initiatives needed to ensure the protection and promotion of the rights of women and the elimination of violence against women.