Ali Noer Zaman argues that the impact of an innovative approach to Islamic studies has resulted in "a fresh reading of some Islamic treatises, which are not regarded as being fixed, or unalterable, in the way that the Qur'an is".
"Indonesia in the post-Suharto era has maintained the Pancasila, a political ideology comprised of the belief in one God, humanity, the unity of Indonesia, democracy and social justice. However, demands for the implementation of shari'a remain audible..."
The introduction of Sharia-based regional laws in several Indonesian provinces has aggravated the sociopolitical climate in the world's most densely populated Muslim country. Yet it has also aroused resistance.