International

Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 63/155, this report gives an overview of measures taken by entities of the United Nations system to intensify their efforts to eliminate violence against women, including through increased coordination and collaboration among entities and enhanced support for national efforts to address violence against women.

This study highlights that violence against women was drawn out of the private domain into public attention and the arena of State accountability largely because of the grass-roots work of women’s organizations and movements around the world. This work draws attention to the fact that violence against women is not the result of random, individual acts of misconduct, but rather is deeply rooted in structural relationships of inequality between women and men.

Forced and early marriage deprives women and young girls of their basic human rights. Forced marriage describes a marriage that takes place without the free or valid consent of one or both of the partners and involves either physical or emotional duress. Early marriage is related to forced marriage because minors are deemed incapable of giving informed consent. Forced and early marriages are serious human rights violations. The requirement for the free and informed consent of both parties to a marriage is recognized in numerous legal instruments at international, national and local levels.

This collection of articles on gender-based violence (GBV) is aimed at development and humanitarian practitioners, policy makers, and academics. This book brings together some of the most interesting and innovative work being done to tackle GBV in various sectors, world regions, and socio-political contexts. Take as a whole, the articles cover a wide range of manifestations of GBV.

This report reviews the writings and statements of Muslim clerics and of other Islamic religious institutions that instead of condemning wife-beating, discuss it as a legitimate way of ‘disciplining’ the wife based on the Qur’an (4:34).

The booklet was published as part of the women's groups' campaign for a Domestic Violence Act in Malaysia to include Muslims. In question and answer form, it deals with such questions: Does Islam allow a husband to physically beat or mentally harass his wife?; What is regarded in Islam as cruelty towards a wife?; Verse All Nisa', 4:34 has been commonly used to justify wife beating.

Taking the penalty for adultery (had al-zina) as a case study, this essay attempts to address some of the practical problems associated with contemporary applications of Islamic penalties know as hudood. It looks at all four Sunni schools of law in relation to zina, and gives an in-depth discussion of their conflicting implications. In empirical terms the study investigates some court cases of zina taken from Sudan, a country in which the Islamic criminal penalties were introduced for the first time in 1983, then in 1991.

Ayatollah Shirazi is originally from Shiraz, Iran and has penned dozens of books on the improvement of morals, fiqh and the exegesis of Quran. Shirazi writes on the “great” sins, of which adultery is one, but offers some specifically Shia commentary. While he condones stoning, his opinion stresses the near impossibility of proving adultery by witness and the lack of compulsion in confession. Here he also seems to oppose the “Judges’ Knowledge: “It is not permitted for the Judge to goad the accused to confess.

This paper examines the link between witchcraft accusations and displacement. Accusations may cause displacement through forced exile or the personal decision to flee from the threat of harm. Some of the numerous explanations for witchcraft accusations are introduced, before turning to the ways in which witchcraft accusations are a protection concern. Documented examples of persecution aimed at alleged witches in various countries across the world are provided before turning to the groups who face the highest risk: women, the elderly and children.

Although this fatwa has to do with specifically with stoning, it mentions some rulings that concern the hadd punishment for adultery (zina.) There are five conditions for an individual to be rightfully found guilty of adultery: 1.) intercourse, 2.) Within a valid marriage, 3.) Being an adult, 4.) Being of sound reason, 5.) Beings free (i.e., not a slave.) Concerning the second condition, the opinion states: “The second condition is that it should be proven that the hadd punishment is deserved, by the testimony of four male witnesses who saw the private parts meet,

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