Family Violence: Battered Womenfocuses on the specific occurrence of violence in the family sphere. Chapter one provides an overview of the changing/evolving definition of family violence, as well as methods of researching instances of violence in the home and the various challenges inherent in conducting such research. Chapter two discusses the varying perspectives that have emerged in academia in regards to the origin of violence, emphasising what each perspective deems as most influential in creating and perpetuating violence.
This resolution makes a few salient points: First, referring to Mokarrameh Ebrahimi, the resolution argues that an extra-matrimonial relationship does not constitute a crime by international legal standards (para F.) Second, the resolution condemns Iran’s use of the death penalty and stoning (para I: 5.)
This report contains the findings of the mission of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, to the Islamic Republic of Iran, which took place from 29 January to 6 February 2005.
Eghtedari looks at the punishments for adultery and homosexuality using a primarily human rights based perspective. It can be stated that the Islamic Republic's penal code is in contradiction with the International Bill of Human Rights at least according to the following criteria:
In this interview with Nobel Prize Winner, Shirin Ebadi discusses stoning from both a human rights and religious point of view. With regards to human rights, she points out the hypocrisy in Iranian law in that the crime of homicide is legally less severe than the crime of adultery. She also explains that most religious leaders believe there are two kinds of Islamic Laws: constitutional laws and laws that are endorsed. Stoning is one of the endorsement laws, meaning that fourteen century ago stoning was a common punishment for adultery and Islam also endorsed it.
Behareh Davalloo was the lawyer of Hajieh Esmalivand, a woman who was sentenced to stoning in 2006. Davalloo was also the director of the Independent Society of Attorneys, and member of the Network of Volunteer Lawyers, the Women’s Centre for Legal Counseling, and the Stop Stoning Forever Campaign. Davalloo represented Hajieh since August 19, 2006, and was able to schedule a retrial on November 7, 2006. She had been in prison for seven years awaiting a stoning sentence for adultery.
This article states that the prominent cleric Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi issued a fatwa stating that stoning was not the only punishment for adultery, opening the path for parliamentary efforts to ban the practice.
Important in this document is Part C on “Torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of punishment.” Paragraph 32 notes 4 cases in the previous 18 months from the time of writing (1997). Paragraph 33 concerns the rarity of stoning: “It may be replied that stoning happens very rarely in the Islamic Republic of Iran and certainly not in the major cities. The Special Representative believes that for it to happen at all is unsustainable both legally and morally.
Ayatollah Musavi Bojnourdi, a high ranking Muslim jurisprudent and former member of the Supreme Judicial Council of Iran (1980-1987), argues here that stoning is an invalid, non-Quranic tradition. He claims that in 1981, Ayatollah Khomeini had issued an official circular by which he prohibited judges from issuing stoning sentences.