Why are women circumcised? These operations are medically unnecessary, agonisingly painful and extremely dangerous. Some girls die from shock and loss of blood. Others develop psychiatric problems from the trauma. Many have chronic infections lasting a lifetime and there are numerous troubles with childbirth, intercourse and menstruation.

Most of the estimated 70 million circumcised women and girls live in certain parts of Africa and the Middle East. There the practice thrives for a variety of social reasons.
Female circumcision in Sudan


Female circumcision (the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia) is widely practised in the Sudan. It has persisted for centuries because of lack of awareness and knowledge about its adverse physical and psychosocial consequences and because of a firm belief in its supposed benefits of ensuring female chastity and securing marriage and subsequent harmonious family life.
The report of the Board of Trustees to the General Assembly of the Arab Organisation for Human Rights -which was adopted by the General Assembly of the AOHR in Khartoum, Sudan, on 31 January 1987 - is in two parts.

The first part, "The Arab Organisation for Human Rights over the past three years", details the stages of the establishment of the Organisation, describes its activities and includes an evaluation of its efforts as well as an examination of future prospects.
The titles listed below can be ordered directly from the Muslim Women’s Research and Action Forum. Write to them at mwraf@sltnet.lk for more details.

Can We Women Head a Muslim State?
Fatima Mernissi
Translated into Tamil by M. Nuhman
In her own words, in this slim volume Mernissi attempts to provide the young and uninformed reader with the basic facts about the ‘yes and No' debate on a woman's right to lead a Muslim state.
A three-day Southeast Asia Regional Meeting on ‘Islam, Politics and Women: What Identities? Whose Interests’ was held from 26 – 28 October 2002 in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.
Asma Khader is Coordinator of Sisterhood Is Global Institute/Jordan (SIGI/J) and Counsel on violence against women to the Permanent Arab Court. She is a lawyer, teacher, author, and leading advocate to outlaw honour killings.
A collective of Arab lesbians or lesbians of Arabic language and culture, living in native lands or lands of exile.
Les N'DéeSses est un collectif de lesbiennes arabes ou de langues et de culture arabes, vivant en terres natales ou en terres d'exil.
South Asians Against Nukes is an independent web site to bring together information resources for peace and anti nuclear activists in South Asia.
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