Why are women circumcised? These operations are medically unnecessary, agonisingly painful and extremely
dangerous. Some girls die from shock and loss of blood. Others develop
psychiatric problems from the trauma. Many have chronic infections lasting a
lifetime and there are numerous troubles with childbirth, intercourse and
Most of the estimated 70 million circumcised women and girls live in certain parts of
Africa and the Middle East. There the practice thrives for a variety of social
Female circumcision (the partial or complete removal of the
external female genitalia) is widely practised in the Sudan. It has persisted
for centuries because of lack of awareness and knowledge about its adverse
physical and psychosocial consequences and because of a firm belief in its
supposed benefits of ensuring female chastity and securing marriage and
subsequent harmonious family life.
The report of the Board of Trustees to the General Assembly of the Arab Organisation
for Human Rights -which was adopted by the General Assembly of the AOHR in
Khartoum, Sudan, on 31 January 1987 - is in two parts.
first part, "The Arab Organisation for Human Rights over the past three years",
details the stages of the establishment of the Organisation, describes its
activities and includes an evaluation of its efforts as well as an examination
of future prospects.
The titles listed below can be ordered directly from the Muslim Women’s Research and Action Forum. Write to them at email@example.com for
Can We Women Head a Muslim State?
Translated into Tamil by M. Nuhman In her own words, in this slim volume Mernissi attempts to provide the young and uninformed reader with the basic facts about the ‘yes and No' debate on a woman's right to lead a Muslim
Asma Khader is Coordinator of Sisterhood Is Global Institute/Jordan (SIGI/J) and Counsel on violence against women to the Permanent Arab Court. She is a lawyer, teacher, author, and leading advocate to outlaw honour killings.