In recent years Islamic
doctrine has assumed a more visible place in the Indonesian legal system. This
trend arguably dates from the passage of the National Marriage Act in the
mid-1970s, which for the first time gave explicit recognition to Islamic
doctrine as state law. Its most conspicuous manifestations, however, have
occurred since the mid-80s. In 1989 the Religious Judicature Act significantly
expanded the system of Islamic courts, ended their subordination to the civil
courts, and enlarged the courts' substantive jurisdiction.