Project: Stop the Criminalisation and Inhuman Punishment of Women campaign

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This is a project with Solidaritas Perempuan, Indonesia, where the activities that were carried out led to the public’s awareness of where the policy was implemented, which was in the villages and at the South Sulawesi province level. Overall the activity that was carried out has given an overview to the public about the series of activities that took place during the period of March to July 2009. The series of activities are as follows:

1.1              Public Campaign (Mass Action and Brochures Distribution)

Campaign activity was conducted on March 7, 2009, 08.00 – 10.30, one day before International Women’s Day. This activity took place in Makasar with the purpose of giving information to the public, in this case passers by, about the impact of discriminatory policies against women.

The campaign involved about 170 people, which consisted of local NGOs that support the revocation of discriminatory policies against women, women who get assistance from NGOs in organizing, the CO from Padang village Bulukumba district where SP Anging Mammiri organized activities related to these policies (Regional and village Bylaws), political party activists, and the media. An activity that was carried out in the campaign/mass action was the distribution of brochures to passers by and the media, related to the cessation of discrimination against women through policies and local regulation[1].

The brochure generally describes the rise of regulations through regional policy in the form of Regional Regulation (Regional and village Bylaw) which use religion as a way to implement it. Powers from the actor who politicize that religion create the local and village regulations in order to control women’s body. So the brochure that made by Anging Mammiri Women Solidarity (SP-AM) call to South Sulawesi government not to make discriminative policies against women.

About 200 participants of the mass action also shout out to the government to cancel the discriminative policies. Some representative from NGO’s and women from villages shows that the support from mass action participants is big. Mass media also response by cover all activity from the mass action in A.P Pettarani Road (beside Ramayana).

Objectives achieved:
a) Providing information to stakeholders about the discriminative Regional and village/Bylaw policies
b) Informing the stakeholders about the position and rights of women in Islam

2.2 Press Conference

Continuation of the actions that carried out is engage by a dialogue with mass and electronic media through press conferences. All of the mass action participants join in the press conference. On the dialogue, Chairman of SP Anging Mammiri (Wahidah Rustam) gives an overview of the activities carried out on 08 March 2009. This press conference was held at Cafe Anas in Pelita Street and attended by local mass and electronic media as well as national TV and Radio[2]. Responses from the media were good enough by asking examples of discriminative policies in South Sulawesi. And representatives from several women and children organization (Women’s Solidarity Anging Mammiri, Indonesian Women’s Coalition, Forum Pemerhati Masalah Perempuan, LBH Apik Makassar, Lembaga Perlindungan Anak Sulawesi Selatan, Yayasan Mitra Bangsa) said that there are several districts in South Sulawesi that have implemented local regulation or Regency’s Decree (SK) to order the use of Muslim clothing for civil servants (PNS) in government and private institutions[3] and also schools. At least the media has been informed about the rise of actors and factors that deliver discriminative policies against women, by using religion as a ‘tool’ to control of women.

Objective achieved:
a. Provide information to public through local radio about the condition of women in the area which have discriminative local regulations

2.3  Talkshow Radio

Figure 2Ros, SPAM Coordinator Program, gave info for public through talkshow at SPFM radio station, Makassar, South Sulawesi

Radio talk show was carried out 3 times, 2 times in Radio SPFM and 1 times in Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI). The selection of this radio is not separated from objectives of the campaign to inform the public about campaigns activities that perform.

2.3.1        First Talk Show (08 March 2009)

Conducted along together with the mass action that taken. This radio talk show is carried out in SPM radio on Macan Street No. 21, Makasar. Information provided to the listeners is besides information about the mass action on March 8, also informing about research that been carried out by SP Anging Mammiri in Padang village Bulukumba District. Facts that experienced directly by village women related with discriminative policies against women either by local or village regulations that hinder the access and control of women to gain their rights in public spaces. Question that arise in many of the interactive dialogue are asking about local and village regulations which exist in villages in Bulukumba. And there is still pros-cons from the listeners who saw ‘discrimination’ that experienced by women in the local policy level, because in the respondent’s perspective it is very decent for women to use Muslim clothing because of Islamic Shari’a and other view that the jilbab is ‘required’ clothes for women.

2.3.2        Second Talkshow (28 March 2009) at SPFMStation Radio

In general, information which presented is about the existence of policies in the national level that regulate and control women’s body as a control of Pornography Act, followed by policy at the regional level (regional by law) and even at village level (Bylaw), all sees women as object so no wonder if in the end the policy is tends more to judge and criminalize women.

2.3.3 Third ketiga (5 Mei 2009) di Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI)

RRI (The Public Station Radio) chosen because of its scope to remote areas of South Sulawesi. So that people understands about the new policy (Regional and village and Bylaw) and it discriminate the women, especially in Bulukumba district. Beside that people also understand the negative impact of these policies, especially its impact to women. The dialogue also gave overview about the punishment for everyone who violates the policy especially Bylaw, such as whip punishment and this punishment had been felt by the people (including women) who violate this policy. Lots of questions arise in that dialogue, especially from Bulukumba district (policy maker’s party) who gave self-defense because they considered that the policy which produced by Bulukumba district government is right. Other questions that also appear from other districts such as Selayar and Makasar related to the importance of women join forces to fight the injustices.

Objectives achieved:
1. Provide information to the public through local radio about women’s condition of women in the areas which have discriminative local regulations.

2.4 Public Discussion

It held on March 9 2009, along together with International Women’s Day. This moment was chosen to see how is the current situation of women in Indonesia and particularly in South Sulawesi. About how is the women’s struggle in facing situations they experienced in the domestic, workplace or state level.

The public dialogue involve elements of society (women and men), provincial or district government, Anging Mammiri SP assistance in Makasar and Bulukumba, NGOs, academics, students and media, which involved total of approximately 200 people. This public dialogue was open by the Governor of South Sulawesi (DR.H.Syahrul Yasin Limpo, SH.MH, M. Si), he also gave a keynote speech. Before giving his speech, SP Anging Mammiri showed a documentary film related to the whip punishment in Padang village, Bulukumba District village. In his opening speech the Governor specifically gave his support for Women Solidarity (SP) and Women NGOs in South Sulawesi, which also gives attention to problems that experienced by women related to the discriminative policies. The important thing in that the governor is giving his support against the discriminative policies, and asked Anging Mammiri Women’s Solidarity to make Governor Regulation (PERGUB) of anti-discrimination policies against women in South Sulawesi. Basically, the governor can provide his support through the Governor’s Regulation, which further can be submitted to the Legislature of South Sulawesi province.

Resource persons involved in this public dialogue is Wahidah Rustam (Chairman of Anging Mammiri SP), Siti Musdah Mulia (activists who concerntrate on women’s rights in Islam), Simon Lopang (Head of Legal Bureau in South Sulawesi Province), Alwi Rahman (Academic and Cultural activist) , Zohra Andi Baso (Women Activists from South Sulawesi) and Risma Umar (Chairman of the Executive National Board of Women’s Solidarity). The exposure from the interviewees have a very good appreciation from participants in this public dialogue, it can be seen from the responses from the participants related to the information given by interviewees. From the view of participants related to the discriminative policies against women is not eligible to be applied, because it violates the higher constitution. This was submitted by Simon Lopang, SH [4], in his “Technical Organzing of Regional Regulations” material. Siti Musdah Mulia also present informations related to women’s rights in Islam. Results of Anging Mammiri SP related with access and control of women in public decision making, illustrate clearly about women’s condition, which influenced by actors and factors that hinder women’s empowerment. One of them is the policy (REGIONAL AND VILLAGE and BYLAW) which controls a woman’s body, which eliminates women’s rights as citizens. In this public dialogue, one part of the campaign against the discriminative policies against women is asking for support from participants by giving their signature on the banner that has been provided by the event, the governor also come to give support by giving his signature in the banners. That support is a commitment from South Sulawesi government not to make discriminative policies against women in South Sulawesi.

Objectives achieved:
1. Provide information to stakeholders about the discriminative Bylaw against women

2. Informing the stakeholders about the position and women’s rights in Islam

2.4  Hearing and Lobby to Legislative House

Hearing on the campaign day has been planned, but it was not realized because toward the elections in April 2009, members of the Legislative were not in place until the presidential elections ends in July. So that the hearing process was conducted on 14 July 2009, by performing a direct dialogue with the legislation committee of Parliament of South Sulawesi Province I (Ramli H. Haba, SH, MH), and the Lobby with the Commission I of South Sulawesi Province DPRD (Santi Devi Dra. Erawati). The reasons for meeting the Legislation Committee was our discussion started from the functions and powers of local legislation committees. Their activity is to design local regulations as initiation rights of the Parliament. In the dialogues conducted by Anging Mammiri SP, carry out overviews of regional policies, especially the whip law in Padang village Bulukumba district, which is the initiative from the village head and executed by the village head himself, and presenting village’s figures as witness. And also explain progress of the Bylaw repeal activity which actually was not contained in the regional paper [5]. Beside that, also provides information about Governor’s Regulation Draft (PERGUB) which was created by Anging Mammiri SP and had submitted to Governor of South Sulawesi.

Results of the meeting are:

§Bulukumba district legislature (DPRD) should correct the Bylaw because it does not provide the sense of justice and some people are intimidated.
§In addition to correct, the Parliament (DPRD) should also provide advice to the Regency to revoke the Bylaw.

§The revoke of this Bylaw should already implemented by local government through assistant I who in charge in the legal. They should call the local village head to prevent him from performing whip law practice. They also have to control and monitor so that no more whip law practice.

§Regulation must deliver awareness for the community to run it, where regulation should apply in general. Although often have excuses / exceptions in emergency situation. Regional and village should not contain the criminal element, because sanctions area is included in the positive law.
§Coordinate with the Governor, Assistant I or the Bureau of Law.
§Send official letter to the Parliament (DPRD) to invite the governor to hear opinions on PERGUB and important articles to be discussed.

Objectives Achieved:

1. Provide information to stakeholders about the discriminative Bylaw against women

2. Informing the stakeholders about the position and women’s rights in Islam

2.6 Village discussions 

Six Kampong Discussion series was conducted intensively between 16 up to 21 May 2009 in Padang Village and Bialo Village (both are representative of Moslem Village). Most participants were local residents (particularly woman), firstly engaged with the topic of woman’s rights. Throughout discussions, the participants eager to recognize their rights through various interactive methods generally used in woman’s school such as discussion, role play, drawing games. The in-depth discussion brought up woman’s participation in village level, in order to encourage their involvement in decision making process—particularly in village level. Various skills such as expressing opinion, discourses analyzing, meeting intervention, rhetoric, communication, as well as assembling collective decisions—were internalized along the discussion. The participants (Community Organizer and the rest of local resident woman) introduced to understand the basic concept of sex, gender, and human rights/woman’s rights. Discussions were particularly took place in Pallimassang, Mattoanging, Bonto Bulaeng, Bonrongcinranae, as well as Bialo village.          

The activities were averagely attended by 15 women, which were remaining enthusiast in every session, since it has been the foremost initiative of capacity building-based discussion. Hitherto, participants were mostly run their life to earn money in the daily basis, such as harvesting corps, drying rice plants, selling cookies, as well as teaching. Within the objective to give basic recognition in woman’s empowerment, the participants possessed basic knowledge to gain reproductive rights, as well as various rights that focused on justice and gender equity. They have also recognized the social reality as the consequences of inequity relation and role between man and woman, particularly the origin driven by misinterpretation of religion and patriarchal local values & culture. It has been trigger gender inequity that brought limitation to woman in accessing information in public sphere—where woman’s rights are habitually unconsidered.

Objectives achieved:
1. Build women’s understanding and awareness about their basic rights which violated by Regional and village / Bylaw, and its impact on their life through discussions at women’s school.

3        Beneficiaries

a.      Local or provincial government level, district / city has been informed about the outcome of the organizing which carried out Anging Mammiri SP Bulukumba district, related to the discriminative policies against women.

b.      The Provincial, District / City Government, NGOs, and peoples involved in Action and Public Dialogue conducted by Anging Mammiri SP supported by IWE. The NGO’s are Komite Pembebasan Rakyat Miskin, Kaukus Politik Perempuan Indonesia Sulsel, Gerakan Mahasiswa Kristen Indonesia, Yayasan Tumbuh Mandiri Indonesia, KIPAS, Lembaga Pemberdayaan Perempuan Maupe, Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen, Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam Sulawesi Selatan, Kelompok Buruh, Melania Foundation, Lembaga Pengembangan Insani, Walhi, Koalisi Untuk Penguatan Masyarakat Sipil (KUPAS), Yasmindo, Yasmib, LPPI, KL2SS, LAPAR, YSK Maluku, YSS Maluku, Oxfam GB, Jurnal Celebes, STT Intim, KSM MURNI, YLBHM, and Celebes Initiative of Change.

c.       Media have information about policies that discriminative against women in South Sulawesi through press conferences. At the very least, media who attended: Local Media: Harian Fajar, Tribun Timur. Harian Perempuan. National Media: Kompas. Electronic media: Makasar FM, Makassar TV, and Fajar FM

d.      The Governor’s Regulations Draft made by Anging Mammiri SP, which is given to the Governor of South Sulawesi together with Komite Pembebasan Rakyat Miskin, Kaukus Politik Perempuan Indonesia Sulsel, Gerakan Mahasiswa Kristen Indonesia, Yayasan Tumbuh Mandiri Indonesia, KIPAS, Lembaga Pemberdayaan Perempuan Maupe, Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen, Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam Sulawesi Selatan, Kelompok Buruh, Melania Foundation, Lembaga Pengembangan Insani, Walhi, Koalisi Untuk Penguatan Masyarakat Sipil (KUPAS), Yasmindo, Yasmib, LPPI, KL2SS, LAPAR, YSK Maluku, YSS Maluku, Oxfam GB, Jurnal Celebes, STT Intim, KSM MURNI, YLBHM, and Celebes Initiative of Change.

e.      Public informed through radio talk shows related to discriminative policies against women [6].

e.1) Radio SPFM
This radio station in Makassar, South Sulawesi has public target which is public and below middle-up class women or type B as much as 45 percent. The rest is divided between class A or middle-up class as much as 35 percent, A + by 10 percent, and lower class or category C by 10 percent [7].
e.2) Radio RRI
This is a government radio station that has network of all cities, both big cities and small towns in Indonesia.

f.        The network getting stronger for the rejection of policies that discriminate women in South Sulawesi, which is Anging Mammiri Women’s Solidarity, Indonesian Women’s Coalition, Forum Pemerhati Masalah Perempuan, LBH Apik, Lembaga Perlindungan Anak Sulawesi Selatan, Yayasan Mitra Bangsa.

g.      200 people involved in the action and public dialogue conducted by SP Anging Mammiri supported by IWE.

h.      The spread of brochure based with data against the discriminative policies against women.

4. How do you assess the potential long term impact of this project?
Success-Driven Factors:

a.      Mass Action

–          Consensus and consistency between Makassar NGO network to support the abolishment of discriminative policies against woman.

–          Commitment and cooperative mass media to cover action publication as part of campaign against the discriminative Provincial regulation.

–          The election momentum utilizing in order to draw commitment from woman activists in political parties to support woman movement against discrimination through State policies.

b.      Radio Talk show

–          The proximity between SPAM and radio stations had simplify the operational of program execution

–          Positive feedback from radio listener regarding the discussed themes

–          The Radio has asked SP-AM to become a resource speaker to discuss woman problems in South Sulawesi, related to Provincial Regulation 

c.       Public Dialogue

–          The positive encouragement from South Sulawesi Government  to review any discriminative policies against woman in South Sulawesi

–          Positive feedback from South Sulawesi Governor and its’ elements regarding the policies’ review made by SP Angin Mamiri

–          Commitment from Bulukumba District government  to stop the Regional Regulation/Village regulation that discriminated woman

–          Enthusiasm and high interests from discussion participants related to the discussion theme, by giving feedback and information to resource speaker

d.      Village Discussion

–          Woman living in Bulukumba Moslem Village has been the basis of WEMC research, it has simplify the operational to execute discussion

–          Discussion facilitator strongly mastered the context and cases of gender equity, as well as mastered the method of discussion flow

e.      Hearing and Lobby Session in Regional House of Representative

–          Positive respond among Legislative Members of South Sulawesi Provincial Government related to the discriminative regulation against woman

–          Positive consistency to extend the counter legal (PERGUB) to the executive level

Hindering Factors:

–          2009 General Election and instability of political situation had caused the hearing and lobbying activities delayed up to July 2009.

[1] Brochure theme “Stop Discrimination Against Women through Regional Regulation”

[2]Local Media: Harian Fajar, Tribun Timur. Harian Perempuan. Media Nasional : Kompas. Media elektronik Makassar FM, Makassar TV, Fajar FM

[3]Bulukumba, Maros, Enrekang, Luwu, Bantaeng, Pangkep, Bone, Pare-Pare and Gowa region

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